In Spain the fighting of Christian against Muslim had been virtually continuous since the Muslim conquest in the eighth century.
Just after the year 1000 the Cordovan caliphate weakened, and the Spanish Christian princes of the north won the support of the powerful French abbey at Cluny. Under prodding from Cluny, French nobles joined the Spaniards in warring on the Muslims.
Soon the pope offered an indulgence to all who would fight for the Cross in Spain. In 1085 the Christians took the city of Toledo. The Christian movement continued into the twelfth century, recovering a large area of central Spain. It was itself a Crusade—a holy war against the infidel supported by the papacy.